In this article we will indicate how to carry on calculation/sizing for a sprinkler system. The example will consist of a three sprinkler head system branch which is part of a larger “tree” sprinkler system. A tree system is a 'end feed' system, with water being fed from one direction as opposed to a grid or loop system when water may arrive at the sprinkler head from more than one direction. The same calculation can be used for any other application where a k-factor is used.
What Happens With Your VRF/VRV System In The Winter? How Does the Defrost Cycle Work?
Variable refrigerant flow (VRF), also known as variable refrigerant volume (VRV), is an HVAC technology invented by Daikin Industries, Ltd. in 1982. Like ductless mini-splits, VRFs use refrigerant as the cooling and heating medium.
When a building uses a VRF/VRV system during winter time, the frost accumulation on the outdoor unit can affect the system performance. The unit’s heating performance is gradually reduced as ice builds up on the outdoor coils, and excessive frosting can damage the system.